WHITLOW AU, PhD

PROFESSOR EMERITUS

 

One of Whit's long term interest was to learn how dolphins use their biosonar in the wild to detect, discriminate, recognize and localize prey. This included odontocetes such as beaked, pilot and sperm whales and Risso’s dolphins that forage at deep depths between 600–1200 m. Another interest of his was how the biosonar beam is formed in the heads of dolphins, including the relative role of different structures within the head.

Sadly, we lost Whit in 2020. Please visit the In Memoriam SOEST page

For publication pdfs, please visit the following links:

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Biography

Dr. Whitlow Au was an emeritus research professor at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB) and former Chief Scientist of the Marine Mammal Research Program at HIMB. He was awarded the Navy Meritorious Civilian Service Award (3rd highest national award for Navy civilian employee), for contributions in dolphin bioacoustics before transferring to the University of Hawaii. He was a member of the Ocean Studies Board of the National Academy of Sciences, a vice-president and president of the Acoustical Society of America (ASA), and the recipient of the Silver medal in Bioacoustics and the Gold medal both from the ASA. He was on the Danish National Research Foundation blue ribbon panel to evaluate several biological research centers in Denmark and a member of the National Research Council of the National Academies to examine the effects of ocean noise on marine mammal populations. Dr. Au authored the book “The Sonar of Dolphins,” co-author two other books, co-edited three books involving dolphin acoustics and had over 226 peer-reviewed publications to his name. He was an associate editor in Animal Bioacoustics for the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. He was the proud grandfather of 7 grandchildren.

Publications

2019

. Copeland, AM, Au, WWL, Polovina, J. 2019 Influences of Temporal Changes in Pelagic Scattering Layers on Short-Finned Pilot Whales Behavior. Oceanography and Fisheries 9(2):OFOAJ.MS.ID.555758

 

2018

· Wei, C., Au, W.W.L., Ketten, D.R., and Zhang, Y. (2018).  Finite element simulation of broadband biosonar signal propagation in the near- and far-field of an echolocating Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 143, 2611-2620.

 

· Giorli, G., Drazen, J. C.,Neuheimer, A. B., Copeland, A., and Au, W.W.L.  (2018). Deep sea animal density and size estimated using a Dual-frequency IDentification SONar (DIDSON) offshore the island of Hawaii, Progress in Oceanography, 160, 155-165.

2017

· Giorli, G., Au, W. W. L.  (2017).  Combining passive acoustics and imaging sonar techniques to study sperm whales’ foraging strategies (L), J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 142, 1428-1431.

· Yu Zhang, Song, Z.,m Wang, X, Cao, W., Au W.W.L.  (2017).  Directional Acoustic Wave Manipulation by a Porpoise via Multiphase Forehead Structure, Phys. Rev. Appl. 8, 064002-1- , 064002-8.

· Wei, C., Au, W. W. L., Ketten, D. R., Song, Z., and Zhang, Y.  (2017).  Biosonar signal propagation in the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) head: The role of various structures in the formation of the vertical beam, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 141, 4179-4187.

· Au, W.W.L., Echolocation. In B. Wursig, J.GM.H. Thewissen, K.M. Kovacs, editors: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, 3rd ed, Oxford: Academic Press , 2017 , pp. 321 - 331.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Wei, C.  (2017).  A Review of New Understanding of the Role of Individual Structure within the Head of Dolphins in Formation of Biosonar Signal and Beam. Oceanography and Fisheries, 2, DOI: 10.19080/OFOAI.2017.02.555579. 

2016

· Au, W. W. L., Martin, S.W., Moore, P. W., Branstetter, B., and Copeland, A. M. (2016).  Dynamics of biosonar signals in free-swimming and stationary dolphins: The role of source levels on the characteristics of the signal. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 139, 1381–1389.

 

Wei, C., Au, W.W.L., Song, Z., and Zhang, Y. (2016).  The role of various structures in the head on the formation of the biosonar beam of the Baiji (Lipotes vexillifer), J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 139, 875–880.

 

· Giorli, G., Neuheimer, A. & Au, W.W.L. (2016).  Spatial variation of deep diving odontocetes' occurrence around a canyon region in the Ligurian Sea as measured with acoustic techniques. Deep Sea Res. Part 1, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2016.08.002.

 

· Au, W. W.L. and Giorli, G.  (2016). Studying the biosonar activities of deep diving odontocetes in Hawaii and other western Pacific locations. Listening in the ocean: new discoveries and insights on marine life from autonomous passive acoustic recorders. Edited by Au & Lammers, Springer. New York.

 

· Wang Z.T., Au, W.W.L.,  Rendell, L.,  Wang, K.X.,  Wu, H.P.,  Wu, Y.P., Liu J. C., Duan, Q. O., Cao, H. J.,  and Wang, D., (2016).  Apparent source levels and active communication space of whistles of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary and Beibu Gulf, China. PeerJ, DOI 10.7717/peerj.1695

 

2015

· Au, W.W.L.  (2015).  “History of Dolphin Biosonar Research,“ Acoustics Today, 11, 10-17.

· Rudd, R., A., Richlen, F., M., Stimpert, A. K., and Au, W. W. L.  (2015).  “Underwater Sound Measurements of a High-Speed Jet-Propelled Marine Craft: Implications for Large Whales.”

Pacific Sci. 69. 155 – 164. doi:10.2984/69.2.2

· Ou, H., Au, W. W. L., Van Parijs, Oelson, E. M., and Rankin, S. (2015).  “ Wigner-Ville spectrogram analysis for baleen whale frequency down-sweeps classification.”  J. Acoust. Soc. Am.

137, 3024–3032.

· Wei, C., Wang, Z., Song, Z., Wang, K., Ding, W., Au, W. W. L., Zhang, Y., (2015). ”Acoustic Property Reconstruction of a Yangtze Finless Porpoise’s (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) Head Base on CT,”  PlosOne, Doi: : 10.1371/journal.pone.0121442

· Giorli, G., Au, W. W. L., Ou, H., Jarvis, S., Morrissey, R., Moretti, D., (2015). “Passive acoustics monitoring of Odontocetes foraging activity in the Josephine seamount Marine Protected Area.” JASA 137, 2495-2501.

2014 and prior

 

· Au, W. W. L. (2014).  “Dolphin biosonar target detection in noise: wrap up of a past experiment,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, 9-12.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Ou, H.  (2014). “Temporal signal processing of dolphin biosonar echoes from salmon prey,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Express Letter, 136,  EL67-71.

 

· Wei, C., Zhang, Yu, Au, W. W. L. (2014). “Modeling of Ultrasound Beam Formation of Baiji (Lipotes vexillifer).” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, 423-429.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Giorli, G., Chen, J., Copeland, A., Lammers, M., Richlen, M., Jarvis, S., Morrissey, R., and Moretti, D. (2014). Presence and seasonal variation of deep diving foraging

odontcetes around Kauai, Hawaii using remote autonomous acoustic recorders.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am, 135, 521-530.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Giorli, G., Chen, J., Copeland, A., Jarvis, S., Morrissey, R., Moretti, D., and Klinck, H.  (2013).  “Nighttime Foraging by Deep Diving Echolocating Odontocetes off the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai and Ni’iahu as Determined by Passive Acoustic Monitors,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 3119-3127.

 

· Ou, H., Au, W. W. L., Zurk, L., and Lammers, M. O., (2013).  “Automated extraction and classification of time-frequencycontours in humpback vocalizations,” J. Acoust. Soc., Am., 133, 301-310.

 

· Stimpert, A. K., Matilla, D., Nosal, E.M., and Au, W. W. L. (2012).  “Tagging young humpback whale calves: methodology and diving behavior.” Endangered Species Res., 19, 11-17.

· Ou, H., Au, W. W. L., Oswald, J. N.  (2012). “A non-spectrogram-correlation method of automatically detecting minke whale boings,” J. Acoust. Am. 132, El317-EL322.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Branstetter, B., Moore, P. W., and Finneran, J. J.  (2012).  “The biosonar field around an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus),”  J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 131, 569-576.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Branstetter, B., Moore, P. W., and Finneran, J. J.  (2012).  “Dolphin biosonar signals measured at extreme off-axis angles: Insights to sound propagation in the head.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 1199-1206.

 

· Rudd, A.B. and Au, W.W.L. (2012). Partnering with Commercial Shipping for Whale Research: Challenges and Compromises in Design Allow for a Unique Research Platform.  Sea Technology 51(3): 37-39.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Martin, S. W., (2012).  Why dolphin biosonar performs so well in spite of mediocre “equipment.”  IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation, doi: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0194, 1-10.

 

· Lemond, D., Au, W. W. L., Vlachos, S., and Nachtigall, P. E., (2012).  “High-frequency auditory filter shape for the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin,” J. Acoust. Soc.Am. 132, 1222-1228.

 

· Stimpert, A. K., Au, W. W. L., Parks, S. E., Hurst, T., Wiley, D. N. (2011).  “Common humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) sound types for passive acoustic monitoring,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128, 476-482.

 

· Ibsen, S. D., Krause-Nehring, J., Nachtigall, P. E., Au, W. W. L., Breese, M.  (2011).  “Similarities in echolocation strategy and click characteristics between a Pseudorca crassidens and Tursiops truncates,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, 3085-3089.

 

· Lemonds, D. W., Kloepper, L. N., Nachtigall, P. E., Au, W. W. L., and Vlachos, S. A., Branstetter, B. K.  (2011). “A re-evaluation of auditory filter shape in delphinid odontocetes:Evidence of constant-bandwidth filters,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, 3107-3114.

 

· Lammers, M.O., Fisher-Pool, P.I., Au, W.W.L., Meyer, C.C., Wong, K.C., and Brainard, R.E.  (2011).  “Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) wintering behavior in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands observed acoustically,” Mar. Ecol. Progress Series, 423, 261-268.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Richlen, M., Lammers, M. O.  (2011). “The Soundscape of a Nearshore Reef near an Urban Center,“ in Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life, (A. Popper and H. Hawkins, eds).  Springer, N.Y., pp. 345-352.

 

· Lammers, M.O., Small, R., Atkinson, S., Castellote, M., Jenniges, J., Rosinski, A., Moore, S., Chris Garner, C., Au, W.W.L. (2011). “Acoustic monitoring of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Cook Inlet, Alaska.” in Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life, edited by A. Popper and A. Hawkins, Springer Verlag, N.Y., pp. 341-344.

 

· Oswald, J.N., Au, W. W. L., and Dunnebier, F.  (2011).  “Temporal patterns in the occurrence of minke whale boings detected at the Station Aloha Cabled Observatory,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 3353-3360.

 

· Yovel, Y. , and Au, W. W. L. (2010).  “How can dolphins recognize fish according to their echoes,” PLoS Comp. Biol.  5, e14054

 

· Au, W. W. L., Horne, J. , Jones, C.  (2010). “Basis of acoustic discrimination of Chinook salmon from other salmons by echolocating Orcinus orca.”  J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128, 2225-2232.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Houser, D., Finneran, J. J., Lee, W. J., Talmadge, L. A., Moore, P. W.  (2010). The acoustic field on the forehead of echolocating Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus),”  J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128, 1426-1434.

 

· Au, W.W.L., Lammers, M.O. and Yin, S. (2010). “Acoustics of dusky dolphins” In: Dusky Dolphins: Master Acrobats Off Different Shores. Eds. Würsig, B. & Würsig, M. Elsevier

 

· Ibsen, S.D, Au, W.W.L., Nachtigall, P. E., Delong, C. E., and Breese, M. (2010).  “Changes in consistency patterns of click frequency over time of an echolocating bottlenose dolphin,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126, 3821-3829.

 

· Yovel, Y., and Au, W. W. L. “How Can Dolphins Recognize Fish According to Their Echoes? A Statistical Analysis of Fish Echoes.”  (2009).  Plos One, 5, 14054, 1-10.

 

· Kastelein, R. A., Wensveen, W. J., Hoek, L., Au, W. W. L., Terhune, J., and de Jong, C. A. F.  (2009).  “Critical ratio in the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for tonal signals between 0.315 and 150 kHz in random white noise,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126, 1588-1597.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Branstetter, B., K., Benoit-Bird, K.J., and Kastelein, R. A. (2009).  "Acoustic basis for fish prey discrimination by echolocating dolphins and porpoises," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126, 460-467.

 

· Benoit-Bird, K. J., and Au, W.W.L. (2009).  “Cooperative prey herding by the pelagic dolphin, Stenella longirostris. “ J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 125-137.

 

· Benoit-Bird, K. J., and Au, W.W. L. (2009).  “Phonation behavior of cooperatively foraging dolphins,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 539-546.

 

· Mooney, T.A., Nachtigall, P.E., Breese, M., Vlachos, S. and Au, W.W. L. (2009).  “Predicting temporary threshold shifts in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): The effects of noise level and duration,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 1816-1826.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Lammers, M. O., and Yin, S.  (2009).  “Acoustics of Dusky Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus),” in Dusky Dolphins: Master Acrobats off Different Shores, edited by Bernd and Melany Würsig, Academic/Elsevier Press.

 

· Au, W. W. L. (2008).  “The effects of noise on echolocating odontocetes,”  Bioacoustics, 117, 155-158.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Benoit-Bird, K. J.  (2008).  “Broadband backscatter from individual Hawaiian mesopelagic boundary community animals with implications for spinner dolphin foraging.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 123, 2884-2894.

 

· Lammers, M. O., Brainard, R. E., Au, W. W. L., Mooney, T. A., and Wong, K. B. (2008). “An ecological acoustic recorder (EAR) for long-term monitoring of biological and anthropogenic sounds on coral reefs and other marine habitats,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 123, 1720-1728.

 

· Benoit-Bird, K. J., Gilly, W. F., Au, W. W. L., Mate, B.  (2008).  Controlled and in situ target strengths of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas and identification of potential acoustic scattering sources, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 123, 1318-1323.

 

· Muller, M. W., Allen III, J. S., Au, W. W. L. and Nachtigall, P. E.  (2008).  “Time-frequency analysis and modeling of the backscatter of categorized dolphin echolocation clicks for target discrimination,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 124, 657-666.

 

· Ibsen, S. D., Au, W. W. L., Nachtigall, P.E., Breese, M.  (2008).  “Functional bandwidth of an echolocating Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus),” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 1214-1221.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Simmons, J. A.  (2007).  “Echolocation in dolphins and bats,”  Physics Today, Sept., pp. 40-45.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Benoit-Bird, K. J. and Kastelein, R. A. (2007). “Modeling the detection range of fish by echolocating bottlenose dolphins and harbor porpoises.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 121, 3954-3962.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Thomas, J. A., and Ramirez, (2007).  “Evoked potential measurement of the Masked hearing threshold of the Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens).” Aquatic Mammals, 33, 76-84.

 

· Stimpert, A.K., Wiley, D.N., Au, W.W.L., Johnson, M.P., Arsenault, R. (2007). “Megapclicks”:  acoustic click trains and buzzes produced during nighttime foraging of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).” Biology Letters, 3, 467-470.

 

· Muller, M., Au, W.W.L., Nachtigall, P. Allen, J. and Breeze, M.  (2007).  "Phantom echo highlight amplitude and temporal difference resolutions of an echolocating Tursiops truncatus."  J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 2255-2262.

 

· Branstetter, B., Mercado III, E., and Au, W. W. L. (2007).  “Representing multiple discrimination cues in a computational model of the bottlenose dolphin auditory system," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 2459-2459.

 

· Delong, C, Au, W.W.L., Harley, H., Roitblat, H., and Pytka, L.  (2007).  “Human listeners provide insights into echo features used by dolphins to discriminated among objects,” J. Comp. Psych. 121, 306-319.

 

· Mooney, T. A., Au, W. W. L., Nachtigall, P. E., Trippel, E.A. (2007).  “Acoustic and stiffness properties of gillnets as they relate to small cetacean bycatch.” Submitted to ICES Journal of Marine Science.

 

· Ibsen, S., Au, W.W.L., Nachtigall, P., DeLong, C., and Breese, M.  (2007).  "Changes in signal parameters over time for an echolocating Atlantic bottlenose dolphin,”  J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 2446-2450.

 

· Delong, C. M., Au, W. W. L., and Stamper, S. A. (2007).  “Echofeatures used by human listerners to discriminate among objects that vary in material or wall thickness: Implications for echolocating dolphins.”  J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 121, 605-617.

 

· Au, W.W.L., Pack, A.A., Lammers, M.O., Herman, L., Deakos, M., and Andrews, K.  (2006) “Acoustic properties of humpback whale songs.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 1103-1110.

 

· Au, W.W.L., Kastelein, R.A., and Benoit-Bird, K.J., Cranford, T. W., and McKenna, M. F.  (2006).  “Acoustic Radiation from the head of echolocating harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena),” J. Exp.Biol. 209, 2726-2733.

 

· Benoit-Bird, K.J., Au, W.W.L., and Kastelein, R.A. (2006)  “Testing the odontocete acoustic prey debilitation hypothesis:No stunning results.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 1118-1123.

 

· Benoit-Bird, K.J., Au, W.W.L. (2006) "Extreme diel horizontal migrations by a tropical nearshore resident micronekton community" Marine Ecology Progress Series, 319, 1-14

 

· Au, W. W. L. and Lammers, M. O.  (2006).  “Cetacean Acoustics”, Handbook of Acoustics, Chapter 20, edited by T. Rossing, Springer-Verlag, N. Y. pp. 805-837.

 

· Delong, C. M, Au, W. W. L., Lemond, D., Harley, H., and Roitblat, H. L.  (2006).  “Acoustic Analyses of Objects matched by an echolocating bottlenose dolphin. J. Acoust. Soc. 119, 1867-1879.

 

· Lammers, M. O., Schotten, M., and Au, W. W. L. (2006).  “The spatial context of free ranging Hawaiian spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) producing acoustic signals,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119, 1244-1250.

 

· Lammers, M. O., Brainard, R. E., and Au, W. W. L.(2006).  “Diel trends in mesopelagic biomass community of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands observed acoustically,” Atoll Res. Bull. 543, 391-407.

 

· Andrews, K. R., Karczmarski, L., Au, W. W. L., Rickards, S. H., Vanderlip, C. A., and Toonen, R. J. (2006).  Patterns of genetic diversity of the Hawaiian spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris). Atoll Res. Bull. 543, 65-73.

 

· Au, W. W. L.  “A comparison of the sonar capabilities of bats and dolphins,” (2004). in Echolocation in bats and dolphins, edited by J. Thomas, C. Moss, and M. Vater (University of Chicago press, Chicago), pp. xiii-xxvii.

 

· Au, W. W. L.  (2004).  “The dolphin sonar:  Excellent capabilities in spite of some mediocre properties,” in High Frequency Ocean Acoustics, edited by M.B. Porter, M. Siderius and W. A. Kuperman, American Institute of Physics, New York, pp. 247-259.

 

· Bazua-Duran, C. and Au, W. W. L.  (2004).  Geographic variations in the whistles of spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) of the Main Hawai`ian Islands", J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 3757-3769.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Ford, J. K. B., Horne, J. K., and Newman-Allman, K. A. (2004).  “Echolocation signals of free-ranging killer whales (Orcinus orca) and modeling of foraging for chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha),” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 116, 901-909.

 

· Nachtigall, P. E., Supin, A. Ya., Pawloski, J., Au, W. W. L.  (2004).  “Temporary Threshold shifts after noise exposure in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) measured using evoked auditory potentials,”  Mar. Mamm. Sci. 20, 673-687.

 

· Au, W. W. L.  (2004).  “The sonar of dolphins,” Australian Acoustics 32, 61 – 63.

 

· Supin, A. Ya, Nachtigall, P.E., Au, W. W. L., and Breese, M.  (2004).  “The interaction of outgoing echolocation pulses and echoes in the false killer whale's auditory system: Evoked-potential study,” Acoust. Soc. Am, 115, 3218—3225.

 

· Au, W. W. L. and Würsig, B.  (2004).  “Echolocation signals of dusky dolphins (Lagenorhyn

chus obscurus) in Kaikoura, New Zealand,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2307-2313.

 

· Au, W. W. L.  (2004).  “Echolocation Signals of Wild Dolphins,” Acoustical Physics (Russia), 50, 454-462.

 

· Benoit-Bird, K.J. and Au, W.W.L.  (2004).  Diel migration dynamics of an island-associated sound scattering layer, Deep-Sea Res. I, 51, 707-719.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Benoit-Bird, K.  (2003).  Automatic gain control in the echolocation system of dolphin, Nature 423, 861-863.

 

· Au, W. W. L. and Herzing, D. (2003).  “Echolocation signals of wild Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis),” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 113, 598-604.

 

· Benoit-Bird, K.J. & Au, W.W.L. (2003). “Prey dynamics affect foraging by a pelagic predator (Stenella longirostris) over a range of spatial and temporal scales” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 53:364-373.

 

· Kastelein, R. A., Hagedoorn, M., Au, W. W. L., and de Haan, D. (2003).  “Audiogram of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba).  J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 113, 1130-1144.

 

· Lammers, M. O. and Au, W. W. L. (2003) “Directionality in the whistles of Hawaiian spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris): A signal design feature to cue direction of movement?” Marine Mamm. Sci. 19, 249-264.

 

· Supin, A. Ya., Nachtigall, P. E., Pawloski, J., and Au, W. W. L. (2003).  “Evoked potential recording during echolocaiton in a false killer whale Pseudorca crassidens ,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 2408-2411.

 

· Benoit-Bird, K.J. & Au, W.W.L. (2003). “Fine-scale diel migration dynamics of an island-associated sound-scattering layer” Deep-Sea Research Part I, 59, 707-719.

 

· Benoit-Bird, K.J. & Au, W.W.L. (2003).  “Spatial dynamics of a nearshore micronekton sound-scattering layer” ICES Journal of Marine Science, 60, 899-913..
 

· Lammers, M. O., Au, W. W. L., & Herzing, D.L. (2003).  “The broadband social acoustic signaling behavior of spinner and spotted dolphins,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 1629-1639.

 

· Benoit-Bird, K.J., Au, W.W.L., & Kelley, C.D. (2003) “Acoustic backscattering by Hawaiian Lutjanid snappers I: Target strength and swimbladder characteristics.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2757-2766.

· Au, W. W. L. and Benoit-Bird, K.  (2003).  “Acoustic backscattering by Hawaiian Lutjanid snappers II: Broadband temporal and spectral structure,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2767-2774.

 

· Benoit-Bird, K. and Au, W. W. L. (2003).  “Target strength and density structure of Hawai’ian mesopelagic boundary community patches,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 1888-1897.

 

· Benoit-Bird, K.J., Au, W.W.L., Kelley, C.D., Taylor, C.D. (2003) “Acoustic backscattering by deepwater fish measured in situ from a manned submersible.” Deep-Sea Research Part I , 50:221-229.

 

· Tolstoy, A., & Au, W.W.L.  (2003).  “The matched field processing of binaural dolphin-like siganals for the detection and identification of buried targets,” J. Comp. Acoust., 11, 521-534.

 

· Benoit-Bird, K. J. & Au, W. W. L. (2003). “Spatial dynamics of the Hawaiian mesopelagic boundary community”. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 60:899-913..

· Madsen P.T., D.A. Carder, W.W.L. Au, P.E. Nachtigall, B. Møhl,and S.H. Ridgway. (2003) “Sound production in neonate sperm whales”. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 2988-2991.

 

· Philips, J., Nachtigall, P.E., Au, W.W.L., Pawloski, J.L. and Roitblat, H.  (2003).  “Echolocation in the Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus.” J. Acoustic. Soc. Am., 113, 605-616.

 

· Nachtigall, P. E., Pawloski, J., Au, W. W. L. (2003).  “Temporary threshold shifts and recovery following noise exposure in the Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus),” J. Acoust. Soc., Am.  113, 3245-3429.

 

· Schotten, M., Au, W. W. L., Lammers M. O., and Aubauer R. (2003). “Echolocation recordings and localizations of wild spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) and pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) using a four hydrophone array,” in Echolocation in bats and dolphins, edited by J. Thomas, C. Moss, and M. Vater (University of Chicago press, Chicago), pp. 393-409.

 

· Lammers, M. O., Au, W. W. L., and Nachtigall (2003).  “A comparative analysis of the pulsed emissions of free-ranging Hawaiian spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris),” in Echolocation in bats and dolphins, edited by J. Thomas, C. Moss, and M. Vater (University of Chicago press, Chicago), pp. 414-419.

 

· Philips, J., Au, W.W.L., Nachtigall, P.E., Pawloski, J.L., and Roitblat, H. L. (2003) Echolocation in the Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus, a preliminary report. in Echolocation in bats and dolphins, edited by J. Thomas, C. Moss, and M. Vater (University of Chicago press, Chicago), pp. 43-49.

 

· Bazua-Duran, C., and Au, W. W. L.  (2002).  “The whistles of Hawai`ian spinner dolphins,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 3064-3972.

 

· Mohl, B.,  P. T. Madsen, M. Wahlberg, W. W. L. Au, P. E. Nachtigall, & S. H. Ridgway. (2002)  Sound transmission in the spermaceti complex of a recently  expired sperm whale calf,” ARLO 4, 19-24.

 

· Kastelein, R.A., Bunskoek, P., Hagedoorn, M., Au, W. W. L., and deHaan, D.  (2002). “Audiogram of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) measured with narrow-band frequency modulated signals, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 334-344.

 

· Au, W. W. L. (2002).  “Odontocete echolocation,” in Encyclopedia of  Marine Mammals, Edited by W. F. Perrin, B. Wursig, H. G. M. Thewissen, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 358-367.

 

· Au, W. W. L. (2002).  “Bioacoustics Animal” McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology, in 9th edition , edited by M. Licker, McGraw-Hill, New York.

 

· Benoit-Bird, K. J., and Au W. W. L. (2002) “Energy:  Converting from acoustic to organic resource units,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 2070-2075.

 

· Rasmussen, M. H., Miller, L. A., and Au, W. W. L. (2002).  “Source levels of clicks from free-ranging white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris Gray 1846) recorded in Icelandic waters, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 1122-1126.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Lemonds, D. W., Vlachos, S., Nachtigall, P. E., and Roitblat, H. L.  (2002).  “Atlantic bottlenose dolphin hearing threshold for brief broadband signals,” J. Comp. Pscyh. 116, 151-157.

 

· Au, W. W. L.  (2002).  Invited Review of “Marine Mammals and Low-Frequency Sound: Progres since 1994,” Ocean Studies Board, National Research Council, Mar. Mamm. Sci., 301-303.

 

· Teilmann, J., Miller, L.A., Kirketerp, T., Kastelein, R. A., Madsen, P. T., Nielsen, B. K., and Au, W. W. L.  (2002),  “Characteristics of echolocation signals used by harbour porpoise (Phoeoena phocoena) in a target detection experiment.“ Aquatic Mamml. 28, 275–284.

· Benoit-Bird, K.J., and Au, W. W. L. (2001).  “Target strength measurements of Hawaiian mesoplegic boundary community animals,” 110, 812-819.

 

· Benoit-Bird, K. J., Au, W. W. L., Brainard, R. E., Lammers, M. O.  (2001),  “Diel horizontal migration of the Hawaiian mesopelagic boundary community observed acoustically,” Mar. Ecology Progress Series, 217, 1-14.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Frankel, A., Helweg, D. A., and Cato, D. H.  (2001).  “Against the humpback whale sonar hypothesis,” IEEE J. Oceanic Engr., 26, 295-300.

 

· Aubauer, R, W. W. L. Au, P.E. Nachtigall, J.L. Pawloski, D.A. Pawloski and C. DeLong  (2000). Classification of electronically generated phantom targets by an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 2750-2754.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Mobley, J., Burgess, W. C., Lammers, M. O., Nachtigall, P. E. (2000).  Seasonal and Diurnal Trends of Chorusing Humpback Whales Wintering in Waters off W. Maui, Mar. Mamm. Sci. 16, 530-544.

 

· Au, W. W. L. and Green, M.  (2000)  “Acoustic interaction of humpback whales and whale watching boats,” Marine Envir.Res. 49, 469-481
 

· Kasterlein, R. A., Au, W. W. L., and   (2000)  Detection distance of bottom-set gillnets by harbor porpoises  (Phocoena phocoena) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus),” Marine. Envir. Res. 49, 359-375.

 

· Nachtigall, P. E., Au, W. W. L., Pawloski, J. L., and Andrews, K.  (2000). “Measurements of the low frequency components of active and passive sounds produced by dolphins.” Aquatic Mammals. 26, 167-175.

 

· Aubauer, R., Lammers, M. O, Au, W. W. L. (2000).  “One-hydrophone method of estimating distances and depth of phonating dolphins in shallow water.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 2744-2749.

 

· Goo, G. & Au, W.W.L. (2000). "Passive Broadband Detection and Identification of Underwater Targets and Buried Targets in 'Acoustic Daylight'.” SPIE Vol. 4038, 438-449.

 

· Mohl, B., Au, W. W. L., Pawloski, J. L., and Nachtigall, P. E.  (1999).  “Dolphin hearing: relative sensitivity as a function of point of application of a contact sound source in the jaw and head region,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 3421-3424.

 

· Ridgway, S. H., and Au, W. W. L.  (1999).  “Hearing and echolocation: Dolphin,” in Elsevier’s Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, edited by G. Adelman and B. Smith, Elsevier Science, New York, pp. 858-862.

 

· Roitblat, H. L., Nachtigall, P. E., Au, W. W. L., Shizumura, R., & Moons, G. (1999).  Classifying buried targets by mimicking dolphin echolocation.  In Y.-C. Teng, E.-C. Shang, Y.-H. Pao, M. H. Schultz, and A. D. Pierce (Eds.): Theoretical and computational acoustics '97.  (pp. 553-559). Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Kastelein, R. A., Rippe, T., and Schooneman, N. M.  (1999).  “Transmission Beam Pattern and Echolocation Signals of a Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena),” J. Acoust. Soc.Am. 106, 3699-3705.

 

· Mohl, B., Au, W. W. L., Pawloski, J. L., and Nachtigall, P. E.  (1999).  “Dolphin hearing: relative sensitivity as a function of point of application of a contact sound source in the jaw and head region,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 3421-3424.

 

· Kastelein, R. A., Au, W. W. L., Rippe, T., and Schooneman, N. M.  (1999).  “Target detection by an echolocating harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena),”  J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 2493-2498..

 

· Au, W. W. L.,  Lammers, M. O., and Aubauer, R. (1999).  "A Portable Broadband Data Acquisition System for Field Studies in Bioacoustics," Marine Mammal Sci. 15, 526-531.

 

· Andersen, L. N., Au, W. W. L., Larsen, J., and Hansen, L. K.  (1999).  “Sonar Discrimination of cylinders from different angles using neural networks,” ICASSP’99, edited by J. Rodriguez, pp. 1121-1124.

 

· Ridgway, S. H., and Au, W. W. L. (1999).  “Hearing and echolocation: Dolphin,” in Elsevier’s Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, edited by G. Adelman and B. Smith, Elsevier Science, New York, pp. 858-862.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Banks, K.  (1998).  "The Acoustics of Snapping Shrimp in Kaneohe Bay," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 41-47.

 

· Aubauer, R., and Au, W. W.L. (1998).  "Phantom Echo Generation: A New Technique for Investigating Dolphin Echolocation," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 104, 1165-1170.

 

· Goo, G. & Au, W.W.L. (1998).  "Detection of Submerged Elastic Spherical Shell in the Illumination of 'Acoustic Daylight'", SPIE Vol. 3392, 218-231.

 

· Au, W. W. L. and Nachtigall, P. E. (1997).  "Acoustics of Echolocating Dolphins and Small Whales," Marine and Freshwater Behavior and Physiology, 29,  127 -162.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Nachtigall, P. E. , and Pawloski, J. (1997).  "The Effects of the ATOC (75 Hz, 195 dB) Signal on Dolphins and Whales,"  J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 101, 1973-1977.

 

· Au, W. W. L. (1997).   "Some Hot Topics in Animal Bioacoustics," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 101, 2433-2441.

 

· Au, W. W. L. (1997).  "Echolocation in Dolphins with a Dolphin-Bat Comparison,"  Bioacoustics, 8, 137-162.

 

· Goo, G. & Au, W.W.L. (1997). "Detection and Identification of Underwater Objects in Background Noise, ‘Acoustic Daylight’." SPIE Vol. 3079, 71-88.

 

· Au, W. W. L. (1996).  "Acoustic Reflectivity of a Dolphin,"  J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 3844-3848.

 

· Helweg, D. A., Au, W. W. L., Roitblat, H., and Nachtigall, P. E.  (1996).  "Acoustic Basis for recognition of aspect-dependent targets by an echo­locating Atlantic bottlenose dolphin,"  J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 2409-2420.

 

· Roitblat, H. , Au, W. W. L., Nachtigall, P. E., Shizumura, R., and Moons, G.  (1996).  "Sonar Recognition of Targets Embedded in Sediment," Neural Networks, 8, 1263-1273.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Andersen, L., Rasmussen, A., Roitblat, H., and Nachtigall, P. E.  (1995).  "Neural Network Modeling of a Dolphin's Sonar Discrimination Capabilities,"  J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 43-50.

 

· Dolphin, W. F., Au, W. W. L., Nachtigall, P. E., and Pawloski, J.  (1995).  "Modulation rate transfer functions to low-frequency carriers by three species of cetaceans,"  J. Comparative Physiology, 177. 235-245.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Pawloski, J., Nachtigall, P. E., Blonz, M., and Gisner, R.  (1995).  "Echolocation signal and transmission beam pattern of a false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens)," J. Acoust. Soc. of Am. 98, 51-59.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Nachtigall, P. W.  (1995).  "Artificial Neural Network Modeling of dolphin echolocation," (W. Au and P. Nachtigall), in Marine Mammal Sensory Capabilities, edited by Kasterlein, R., Thomas, J. A. and Nachtigall, P. E., (De Spiel, The Netherlands), pp.  183-199.

 

· Helweg, D. A., Roitblat, H. L., Nachtigall, P. E.,  Au, W. W. L., and Irwin, R.J.  (1995).  "Discrimination of echoes from aspect-dependent targets by a  bottlenose dolphin and human listeners," in Marine Mammal Sensory Capabilities, edited by Kasterlein, R., Thomas, J. A. and Nachtigall, P. E., (De Spil Publisher, The Netherland),  pp.129-136.

 

· Nachtigall, P. E., Pawloski, J. L., Au, W. W. L., and Moore, P. W. B.  (1995).  "Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) hearing thresholds in Kaneohe Bay,  in Marine Mammal Sensory Capabilities, edited by Kasterlein, R., Thomas, J. A. and Nachtigall, (P. E., De Spil Publisher, The Netherland), pp. 49-53.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Nachtigall, P. W.  (1994).  "Dolphin Acoustics and Echolocation,"  Acoust. Bull., Inst. of Acoust., 19, No.4, 19-26. 

 

· Au, W. W. L. (1994).  "Comparison of Sonar Discrimination: Dolphin and an Artificial Neural Net­work,"  (W. Au), J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 2728-2735.

 

· Nachtigall, P. E., Au, W. W. L., and Roitblat, H. L.  (1994).  "Animal echolocation and signal processing,"  Ocean 94: Proceeding of the IEEE I, 259-263.

 

· Au, W. W. L. (1994).  "Sonar Detection of Gillnets by Dolphins: Theoretical Prediction," (W. Au), in  Gillnets and Cetaceans, International Whaling Commission Special Issue 15,  edited by W. Perrin, G. Donovan, and J. Barlow,  Cambridge, pp. 565-571.

 

· Au, W. W. L. (1992).  "Target Sonar Discrimination Cues,"  in Marine Mammal Sensory Systems, edited by J. Thomas, R. Kasterlein, and A. Supin, (Plenum Press, N.Y.) 357-376.

 

· Au, W. W. L. (1992).   "Application of the Reverberation-Limited Form of the Sonar Equation to Dolphin Echolocation,"   J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 92, 1822-1826.

 

· Brill, R. Pawloski, J. L., Helweg, D. A., Au, W. W. L., and Moore, P. W. B.  (1992).   "Target Detection, Shape Discrimination, and Signal Characteristics of an Echolocating False Killer Whale (Pseudorca crassidens),"  J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 92, 1324-1330.

 

· Au, W. W. L. (1992).  "Application of the Sonar Equation to Dolphin Echolocation," Proceed­ings of the 14th International Congress on Acoustic, I1-3, Beijing, China, 3-10 Sept..

 

· Au, W. W. L. (1992).  "Comparison of Sonar Discrimination by an Echolocating Dolphin and a Counter­propagation Neural Network," Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Acoustic, B1-2, Beijing, China, 3-10 Sept.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Pawloski, D.  (1992).  "Cylinder Wall Thickness Difference Discrimination by an Echolocating Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin," J. Comp. Physiol. A. 172, 41-47.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Jones, L.  (1991).  "Acoustic Reflectivity of Nets: Implications Concerning Incidental Take of Dolphins," Marine Mammal Science, 7, 258‑273.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Turl, C. W.  (1991).  "Material Composition Discrimination of Cylinders at Different Aspect Angles by an Echolocating Dolphin," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 89, 2448‑2451.

 

· Turl, C. W., Skaar, C., and Au, W. W. L. (1991).  "The Echolocation Ability of the Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) to Detect Targets in Clutter,"  J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 89, 896‑901.

 

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Moore, P. W. B.  (1990).  "Critical Ratio and Critical Bandwidth for the Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin,"  J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 88, 1635‑1638.

 

· Roitblat, H. L., Moore, P. W. B., Nachtigall, P. E., Penner, R. H., and Au, W. W. L. (1990). "Natural Echolocation with an Artificial Neural Network," The Int. J. Neural Net., 1, 239‑248.

 

· Au, W. W. L. (1990).  "Target Detection in Noise by Echolocating Dolphins," in Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans, edited by J. Thomas and R. Kastelein (Plenum, New York), pp. 203‑216.

 

· Thomas, J. A., Pawloski, J. L.,  and Au, W. W. L. (1990)."Masked Hearing Abilities in a False Killer Whale (Pseudorca crassidens),"  in Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans, edited by J. Thomas and R. Kastelein (Plenum, New York), pp. 395‑404.

 

· Au, W. W. L. (1990).  "Echolocation in Dolphins," (W. Au), in Comparative Perception I: Basic Mechanisms, edited by M. Berkeley and W. Stebbins, (Wiley, New York), pp. 315‑350.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Martin, D.  (1989).  "Insights into Dolphin Sonar Discrimination Capabilities from Human Listening Experiments,"  J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 86, 1662‑1670.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Pawloski, J. L.  (1989).  "Detection of Noise with Rippled Spectra by the Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin,"  J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 86, 591‑596.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Pawloski, D. A.  (1989).  "A Comparison of Signal Detection between an Echolocating Dolphin and an Optimal Receiver,"  J. Comp. Physiol. A, 164, 451‑458.

 

· Roitblat, H. L., Moore, P. W. B., Nachtigall, P. E., Penner, R. H.,  Au, W. W. L. (1989). "Dolphin Echoloca­tion: Identification of Returning Echoes Using a Counter‑propagation Network," International Joint Conf. on Neural Networks, Vol I, 295‑300.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Moore, P. W. B.,  and Pawloski, D. A.  (1988).  "Detection of Complex Echoes in Noise by an Echolocating Dolphins," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 83, 662‑668.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Penner, R. H., and Turl, C. W.  (1988).  "Propagation of Beluga Echolocation Signals," , in Animal Sonar: Processes and Performance, edited by P. E. Nachtigall & P. W. B. Moore, (Plenum, New York), pp. 47‑51.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Moore, P. W. B.  (1988).  "Perception of Complex Echoes by an Echolocating Dolphin,"  in Animal Sonar: Processes and Performance, edited by P. E. Nachtigall & P. W. B. Moore, (Plenum, New York), pp. 295‑299.

 

· Au, W. W. L. (1988).  "Detection and Recognition Models of Dolphin Sonar Systems," (W. Au) in Animal Sonar: Processes and Performance, edited by P. E. Nachtigall & P. W. B. Moore, (Plenum, New York) pp. 753‑768.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Martin, D.  (1988).  "Sonar Discrimination of Metallic Plates by Dolphins and Humans," in Animal Sonar: Processes and Performance, edited by P. E. Nachtigall & P. W. B. Moore, (Plenum, New York), pp. 809‑813.

 

· Martin, D., and Au, W. W. L. (1988).  "An Automatic Target Recognition Algorithm using Time‑Domain Features,"  in Animal Sonar: Processes and Performance, edited by P. E. Nachtigall & P. W. B. Moore, (Plenum, New York), pp. 829‑833.

 

· Au, W. W. L. (1988).  "Sonar Target Detection and Recognition by Odontocetes",  in Animal Sonar: Processes and Performance, edited by P. E. Nachtigall & P. W. B. Moore, (Plenum, New York), pp. 451‑465.

 

· Thomas, J., Chun,  N., and Au, W.W.L. (1988).  "Underwater Audiogram of a False Killer Whale (Pseudorca crassidens),"   J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 84, 936‑940.

 

· Turl, C. W., Penner, R. H., and Au, W. W. L. (1987).  "Comparison of the Target Detection Capability of the Beluga and Bottlenose Dolphin  J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 82, 1487‑1491.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Penner, R. H., andTurl, C. W.  (1987). "Propagation of Beluga Echolocation Signal," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 82, 807‑813.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Martin, S., and Moore, P. W. B.  (1987).  "Phantom Electronic Target for Dolphin Sonar Research,"  J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 81, 711‑713.

 

· Penner, R. H.,  Turl, C. W., and  Au, W. W. L. (1986).  "Target Detection by Beluga Using a Surface‑Reflected Path,"  J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 80, 1842‑1843.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Moore, P. W. B.,  and Pawloski, D. A. (1986).  "Echolocation Transmitting Beam of the Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin,"  J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 80, 688‑691.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Carder, D. A,  Penner, R. H., and Scronce, B. L..  (1985).  "Demonstration of Adaptation in Beluga whale Echolocation Signals,"  J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 77, 726‑730.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Turl, C. W.  (1984).  "Dolphin Biosonar Detection in Clutter: Variation in the Payoff Matrix,"  J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 76, 955‑957.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Turl, C. W.  (1984).  "Sonar Target Detection in Clutter by Tursiops truncatus: Variation in the Payoff Matrix," Acta Zool Fennica 172, 143-145.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Moore, P. W. B.  (1984).  "Receiving Beam Patterns and Directivity Indices of the Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops truncatus,"  J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 75, 255‑262.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Turl, C. W. (1983).   "Target Detection in Reverberation by an Echolocating Atlantic Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 73, l676‑l68l.

 

· Ceruti, M. and Au, W. W. L. (1983). "Microprocessor‑based System for Monitoring a Dolphin's Echolocation Pulse Parameters,"  J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 73, l390‑l392.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Penner, R. H., and Kadane, J.  (1982).  "Acoustic Behavior of Echolocating Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins,"  J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 71, 1264‑1275.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Penner, R. H.  (1981). "Target Detection in Noise by Echolocating Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins,"  J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 70, 687‑693.

 

· Hammer, C. Jr., and Au, W. W. L. (1980), "Porpoise Echo‑Recognition:  An Analysis of Controlling Target Characteristics," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 68, 1285‑ 1293.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Snyder, K. J.  (1980). "Long‑Range Target Detection in Open Waters by an Echolocating Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)," , J.Acoust. Soc. Am., 68, 1077‑1084.

 

· Au, W. W. L. (1980).  "Echolocation Signals of the Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in Open Water," in Animal Sonar Systems, edited by R.G. Busnel and J.F. Fish, (Plenum Press, N.Y), pp 855‑858.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Hammer, C. Jr. (1980).  "Target Recognition via Echolocation by Tursiops truncatus,"in Animal Sonar Systems, edited by R.G. Busnel and J.F. Fish, (Plenum Press, N.Y.), pp 855‑858.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Schusterman, R., and Kersting, D. A.  (1980). "Sphere‑Cylinder Discrimination via Echoloca­tion by Tursiops truncatus,"  in Animal Sonar Systems, edited by R.G. Busnel and J.F. Fish, (Plenum Press, N.Y.), pp 859‑862.

 

· Nachtigall, P. E., Murchison, A. E., and Au, W. W. L. (1980).  "Cylinder and Cube Shape Discrimination by an Echolocation Blindfolded Bottlenose Dolphin,"  in Animal Sonar Systems, edited by R.G. Busnel and J.F. Fish, (Plenum Press, N.Y.), pp 945‑948.

 

· Schusterman, R., Kersting, D. A., and Au, W. W. L. (1980).  "Stimulus Control of Echolocation Pulses in Tursiops truncatus," in Animal Sonar Systems, edited by R.G. Busnel and J.F. Fish, (Plenum Press, N.Y. ), pp 981‑983. 

 

· Schusterman, R., Kersting, D. A., and Au, W. W. L. (1980).   "Response Bias and Attention in D­iscriminative Echolocation by Tursiops truncatus", in Animal Sonar Systems, edited by R.G. Busnel and -J.F. Fish, (Plenum Press, N.Y.), pp 983‑985.

 

· Au, W. W. L.,  and Floyd, R. W.  (1979).  "Digital Equalization of Underwater Transducer for Projection of Broadband Acoustic Signals,"  J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 65, 1585‑1588.

 

· Au, W. W. L., Floyd, R. W., and Haun, J. E. (1978).  "Propagation of Dolphin Echolocation Signals,"  J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 64, 411‑412.

 

· Moore, P. W. B., and Au, W. W. L. (1975).  "Underwater Localization of Pulsed Pure Tones by the California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus),"  J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 58, 721‑ 727.

 

· Au, W. W. L.,  Floyd, R. W., Penner, R. H., and Murchison, A. E. (1974).  "Measurement of Echolocation Signals of the Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus Montagu, in Open Waters," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 56, 1280‑1290.

 

· Au, W. W. L.  (1971).  "An Investigation of a Double Family of Normal Modes in an Isovelocity

Underwater Acoustic Duct," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 50, 286‑299.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Hower, G.  (1970).  "Multi‑Station Observations of Long‑Range Backscatter from Field‑Aligned Irregularities,"  J Atmospheric Terrest. Phys., 32, 1577‑ 1589.

 

· Au, W. W. L.  (1970).  "The Morphology of Backscatter from F‑Layer Field‑Aligned Irregularities at Mid‑ and High‑Latitudes and the Generation of these Irregularities," PhD dissertation, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington.

 

· Au, W. W. L.  (1968).  "An Examination of the Impedance Sheet Approximation to a Plasma Slab," (W. Au), IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation," Ap‑16, 610‑611.

 

· Au, W. W. L., and Hart, W. Jr.  (1967).  "Effects of Hot Electromagnetic Windows on Transmission Through Reentry Plasma Sheaths," Proceedings on the Conference on the Application of Plasma Studies to Reentry Vechicle Commmunications, 1, October 3.

 

· Au, W. W. L.  (1964).  "The Effects of Space Charges on the Potential Distribution of Liquid Dielectrics," (W. Au), MS Thesis, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington.

 
 
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