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PAUL NACHTIGALL, PhD

PROFESSOR EMERITUS

 

I am interested in the sensory systems of marine mammals and started with vision in clawless otters. Lately I have focused on hearing and echolocation in cetaceans.  I have worked closely with collaborators to develop a reasonable way to measure hearing in cetaceans and polar bears measuring brain wave patterns and amplitudes in response to sounds. This technique has also allowed us to measure hearing while animals echolocate and we have found that they can avoid loud sound by internally ‘plugging their ears’ when necessary or by making hearing more sensitive when listening for feint echoes.

email: nachtiga@hawaii.edu

For publication pdfs, please visit the following links:

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Biography

Dr. Nachtigall is Director Emeritus and  founder of the Marine Mammal Research Program at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii at Manoa.  Since retiring from teaching at Manoa, he no longer takes students as the principal advisor. He supervised Doctoral and Masters students in Psychology, Zoology, Biology and Marine Biology and remains on the Faculty in those departments.  He has studied a variety of marine mammals ranging from polar bears to sperm whales and most of his studies have centered on measuring and developing an understanding of animal sensory systems. Dr. Nachtigall has worked thoughout the world.  He is an honorary member of the European Association for Aquatic Mammals, edited the journal Aquatic Mammals for over 10 years, is a Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America,  is a former president of the Society for Marine Mammalogy and a current board member as chair of the Ethics Committee, and has served on many international boards and advisory committees.  He has written or edited 7 books and published over 150 peer-reviewed research journal articles. Despite financial retirement, he remains active teaching occasional classes at Syracuse University,  the University of New Hampshire and Lund University in Sweden, and continues research and writing , reviewing and consulting.

 

Publications

2019

. Southall, BL; James J. Finneran, JJ; Reichmuth, C; Nachtigall, PE; Darlene R. Ketten,DR; Bowles, AE; Ellison, WT; Nowacek,DP; Tyack PL. 2019 Marine Mammal Noise Exposure Criteria: Updated Scientific Recommendations for Residual Hearing Effects Aquatic Mammals 45(2), 125-232, DOI 10.1578/AM.45.2.2019.125

2018

· Nachtigall, P.E., 2018 Review: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals 3rd Edition.  Marine Mammal Science,  34(2)  553-555.

 

· Smith, A.B., Pacini, A., and Nachtigall, P.E., 2018. Modulation rate transfer functions of four species of stranded odontocete (Stenella longirostris, Feresa attenuata, Globicephala melas, Mesoplodon densirostris). Journal of Comparative Physiology A

 

· Kloepper, L.N.,  Buck, J.R.   Liu, Y. and  Nachtigall, P.E. 2018. Bottlenose dolphins direct sonar clicks off-axis of targets to maximize Fisher Information about target bearing.  Journal of the Acoustical

Society of America EL

2017

 

· Sysueva, E.V., Nachtigall, P.E., Cranford, T.W., Pacini, A., Allum, C. and Supin, A. Ya. 2017. Auditory sensitivity areas of head to local underwater stimulation in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics

 

· Nachtigall, P.E., Supin, A.Ya,   Pacini, A. and Kastelein, R. 2017. Four Odontocete Species Change Hearing Levels When Warned of Impending Loud Sound.  Integrative Zoology doi: 10.1111/1749-4877.12286

2016

· Pacini, A.F., Nachtigall, P.E., Smith, A.B., Leo, J.A., Suarez, C.M., Laule, G.E., Aragones, L.V. and Braun, R. 2016. Evidence of hearing loss due to dynamite fishing in two species of odontocetes. Proc. Mtgs. Acoust. 27, 010043. 2016); doi: 10.1121/2.0000393

 

· Nachtigall, P.E. Biosonar and Sound Localization in Dolphins. INVITED. 2016. Oxford Encyclopedia of Neurosciences. Nov 2016 DOI:10.1093/acrefore/9780190264086.013.103

· Nachtigall, P.E., Supin, A. Ya., Pacini, A.H., & Kastelein, R. 2016. Conditioned sensitivity change in the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 140,  960-967

· Nachtigall, P.E.,  Supin, A.Ya., Smith, A. B., and Pacini, A.F. 2016.  Expectancy and conditioned hearing sensation level  in the bottlenose  dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of Experimental Biology  219 844-850.

· Nachtigall, P.E.,  Supin, A.Ya. Esteban, J.A., and Pacini, A.F. 2016. Learning and extinction of conditioned hearing sensation change in the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas)  Journal of Comparative Physiology A  DOI 10.1007/s00359-015-1056-x

· Smith, A.B., Kloepper, L.N., Wei-Cheng, H., I-Fen, J, Rideout, B.P. & Nachtigall, P.E. 2016. Echolocation beam characteristics of the Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 139, 53 http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4937752

 

2015

· Nachtigall, P.E. and Supin, A.Ya. 2015. Hearing Sensation Changes When A Warning Predicts a Loud Sound In the False Killer Whale (Pseudorca crassidens). In: The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II, Popper, A.N. & Hawkins, A. Springer, Berlin.  Pp 743-747

 

· Pacini, A. and Nachtigall, P.E. 2015. Hearing in Whales and Dolphins: Relevance and Limitations.  In: The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II, Popper, A.N. & Hawkins, A.  Springer, Berlin. Pp 801-809

 

· Au, W.W.L., Ford, J.L., Herman, L.M., Nachtigall, P.E., Ridgway, S.H., Thomas, J., Wells, R., Whitehead, H., Johnson, C.M., and Herzing, D.L. 2015. Visions of the Future.  In: Dolphin Communication and Cognition, D.L. Herzing and C.M. Johnson, MIT Press, Cambridge Massachusetts,

271-289

 

· Kloepper, L N., Buck J.R., Smith, A.B., Supin, A. Ya., Gaudette, J.E. and Nachtigall, P.E 2015. Support for the beam forming hypothesis in the false killer whale.  Journal of Experimental Biology

 

· Wang, Z.T., Nachtigall, P.E., Akamatsu, T., Wang, K.X., Wu,Y.P., Liu J.C. , Duan, G.Q., Cao, H.J. and Wang, D. 2015. Passive acoustic monitoring the diel, lunar, seasonal and tidal patterns in the biosonar activity of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary, China. PLOS ONE. PONE-D-15-36486R1

 

· Nachtigall, P.E. & Supin, A. Ya. 2015. Conditioned frequency dependent hearing sensitivity reduction in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Journal of Experimental Biology, 218, 999 -1005

2014 and prior

 

· Wisniewska, D., Johnson, M., Nachtigall, P.E., and Madsen, P.T. (2014) Buzzing during biosonar-based interception of prey in the delphinids Tursiops truncatus and Pseudorca crassidens.  J Exp Biol. 217, 4279-4282.

 

· Kloepper, L.N., Smith, A.B., Nachtigall, P.E., Buck, J.R., Simmons, J.A., & Pacini, A.F. (2014) Cognitive adaptation of sonar gain control in the bottlenose dolphin.  Plos One 9 (8) 1-10. DOI:101371/journal.pone.0105938

 

· Nachtigall, P.E. & Schuller G., Hearing during Echolocation in Whales and Bats. (2014)  In: Surrlykke, A. Nachtigall, P.E., Popper, A.N. and Fay, R.  BioSonar.  Springer. New York

 

· Surlykke, A & Nachtigall, P.E, .(2014) In: Biosonar in Bats and Toothed Whales: An Overview.Surrlykke, A. Nachtigall, P.E., Popper, A.N. and Fay, R.  BioSonar.  Springer. New York

 

· Nachtigall, P.E. & Supin, A. Ya. (2014) Conditioned hearing sensitivity reduction in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 2806-2813

 

· Nachtigall, P.E. (2014) Editing Aquatic Mammal Mammals 1992-2000.  Aquatic Mammals, 40, 1, 1-4

 

· Nachtigall, P.E.  and Supin, A. Ya.  (2013) False killer whales reduce their hearing sensitivity if a loud sound is preceded by a warning. Jnl Exp Biol, 216, 3062-3070

 

· Supin, A.Ya. and Nachtigall, P.E. (2013) Gain control in the sonar of odontocetes. Jnl Comp Phys A 199, 6, 471-478

 

· Supin, A. Ya., Nachtigall, P.E. & Breese, M.  (2012)  A whale better adjusts the biosonar to ordered rather than to random changes in the echo parameters.  J Acoust Soc Am  132, 3, 1811-1819

 

· Lemonds, D.W., Au, W.W.L., Vlachos, S.A., and Nachtigall, P.E. (2012) High Frequency auditory filter shape for the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin.  J Acous Soc Am,132,1222-1228

 

· Linnenschmidt  M., Kloepper, L. N. , M. Wahlberg, M. and Nachtigall, P.E. (2012) Extremely rapid gain control regulation in the biosonar of a harbour porpoise. Naturwissenschaften  99, 9, 767-771

 

· Kloepper, L. N., Nachtigall, P. E., Donahue, M. J., and Breese,(2012) M. Active echolocation beam focusing in the false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens)  Jnl Exp Biol 215, 1306-1312

 

· Linneschmidt, M., Beedholm, K., Wahlberg, M, Hojer-Kristensen, J and Nachtigall, P.E.  Keeping returns optimal: Gain control elicited by dynamic hearing thresholds in a harbour porpoise. (2012) Biol Letters.  Proceedings of the Royal Society B.  doi:10.1098/rspd.2011.2465. published online

 

· Li S, Nachtigall PE, Breese M, Supin AY (2012) Hearing Sensation Levels of Emitted Biosonar Clicks in an Echolocating Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin. PLoS ONE 7(1): e29793. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029793

 

· Mooney, T.A.,  Hanlon, R.   Madsen, P.T.,  Christensen-Dalsgaard, J. Ketten, D.R & Nachtigall, P.E. (2012), Potential for Sound Sensitivity in Cephalopods. Popper, A. N. and Hawkins, A.  eds.  Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, New York.  125-128.

 

· Pacini, A., Nachtigall, P.E. and Kloepper, L.K. (2012) Portable auditory evoked potential system to assess odontocete hearing. Popper, A. N. and Hawkins, A.  eds.  Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, New York.  225-227.

 

· Nachtigall, P.E., Supin, A.Ya., and Breese, M.  Hearing, Noise and Echolocating Odontocetes. Popper,   A. N. and Hawkins, A.  eds. (2012). Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, New York. 49-51.

 

· Li, S., Nachtigall, P.E., and Breese, M. Auditory brainstem responses associated with echolocation in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Popper, A. N. and Hawkins, A.  eds. (2012). Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, New York. 45-47.

 

· Ibsen, S., Krause-Nehring, J., Nachtigall, P.E.,  Au, W.W.L,  and  Breese, M. (2011)  Similarities in echolocation strategy and click characteristics between a Pseudorca crassidens and a Tursiops  truncatus, J Acoust Soc Am 130, 3085-3089.

 

· Lemonds, D.W., Kloepper, L.N., Nachtigall, P.E., Au, W.W.L, Vlachos, S.A., and Branstetter, B.K. (2011) A re-evaluation of auditory filter shape in delphinids odontocetes: evidence of constant-bandwidth filters.  J Acous Soc Am 130, 3107-3114

 

· Supin, A.Ya., Nachtigall, P.E. and Breese, M. (2011) Interaction of emitted sonar pulses and simulated echoes in a false killer whale: An evoked-potential study.  J Acous Soc Am,130, 1711-1720

 

· Pacini, A.F., Nachtigall, P.E., Quintos, C., Schofield, D. Look, D.A., Levine, G. and Turner, J. (2011) Audiogram of a stranded Blainville’s beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris) measured using auditory evoked potentials.  Jnl Exp Biol 214, 2409-2415.

 

· Li, S.  Nachtigall, P.E., and Marlee Breese. (2011)  Dolphin hearing during echolocation: evoked potential responses in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Jnl Exp Biol   214, 2027-2035

 

· Kloepper, L., Nachtigall, P.E. and Breese, M. (2010) Change in echolocation signals with hearing loss in a false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), J Acous Soc Am., 128, 2233–2237

 

· Kloepper, L. Gisiner, R. L. and Nachtigall, P.E. (2010) Decreased Echolocation Performance following High Frequency Hearing Loss in the False Killer Whale J Exp Biol 213, 3717-3722

 

· Pacini, A.F., Nachtigall, P. E. Kloepper L. and Linnenschmidt, M. (2010) Audiogram of a formerly stranded long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas): measured using auditory evoked potentials. Jnl Exp Biol 213, 3138-3143

 

· Mooney, T.A., Hanlon, R.T., Christensen-Dalsgaard, J., Madsen, P.T., Ketten, D.R., and Nachtigall, P.E. (2010) Sound detection by the longfin squid (Loligo pealeii) studied with auditory evoked potentials: sensitivity to low-frequency particle motion and not pressure.  Jnl Exp Biol 213, 3748-3759

 

· Nachtigall, P.E., Gisiner, R. L. and Reichmuth, C. (2010) Invited -  In Memory: Ron Schusterman.  Marine Mammal Science. 26, 997-2001.

 

· Ibsen, S.D., Au, W.W.L., Nachtigall, P.E., DeLong, C.M., and Breese, M. (2010) Changes in consistency patterns of frequency content over time of an echolocating Atlantic bottlenose dolphin. J Acoust Soc Am 127, 3821-3829.

 

· Supin, A.Ya., Nachtigall, P.E. and Breese, M. (2010) Target distance-dependent variation of hearing sensitivity during echolocation in a false killer whale, J Acoust Soc Am 127, 3830-3837.

 

· Ibsen, S., Au, W., Nachtigall, P., Breese, M. (2009) "Functional bandwidth of an echolocating Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)." J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125(2), 1214-1221

 

· Nachtigall, P.E. (2009) Invited Book Review: ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MARINE MAMMALS 2nd edition. Editors: William F. Perrin, Bernd Würsig, J.G.M. Thewissen.Academic Press. Aquatic Mammals 35(3), 412-413

 

· Mooney, T.A.  Pacini, A. and Nachtigall, P.E.  (2009) False killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) echolocation and acoustic disruption: Implications for long-line bycatch and depredation. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 87, 726-733

 

· Mooney, T.A., Nachtigall, P.E., Miller, L., Rasmussen, M., and Taylor, K.A.  (2009) Auditory temporal resolution of a wild white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris )  Journal of Comparative Physiology – A,  726-733

 

· Mooney T.A., Nachtigall, P.E. and  Vlachos, S. (2009) Sonar induced temporary hearing loss in dolphins. Biology Letters , 5, 565-567

 

· Supin, A. Ya., Nachtigall, P.E., and Breese, M. (2009) Forward masking based gain control in odontocete biosonar: an evoked-potential study.  J Acous Soc Am 125 2432-2442.

 

· Mooney T.A., Nachtigall, P.E.  Breese, M.  Vlachos, S. and Au, W.L. (2009), Predicting temporary threshold shifts in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): the effects of noise level and duration. J Acous Soc Am , 125, 1816-1826.

 

· Nachtigall, P.E.  Recent directions in Odontocete cetacean hearing.(2008) Bioacoustics, 17, 82-85.

 

· Southall, B.L., Bowles, A.E., Ellison,W.T. Finneran, J.J., Gentry, R.L., Greene, C.R.Jr., Kastak, D., Ketten D.R., Miller J.H., Nachtigall, P.E., Richardson, W.J., Thomas, J.A., and Tyack, P.L. (2008) Marine mammal noise exposure criteria: initial scientific recommendations. Edited by: Paul Lepper, Ross Compton, Simon Dible, Trevor Guymer, Ed Harland, Simon Richards and Stephen Robinson.  Underwater Noise Measurement, Impact and Mitigation, 2008. Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics Conference on Underwater Noise Measurement, Impact and Mitigation.  Southampton, UK 14-15 October, 2008. Published by the Institute for Acoustics: St Albans, UK. Pages 13-16. 

 

· Supin, A.Ya., Nachtigall, P.E. and Breese, M. (2008) Forward masking as a mechanism of automatic gain control in whale biosonar: a psychophysical study, J Acous Soc Am 124, 648-656.

 

· Mooney, T.A., Nachtigall, P.E., Castellote, M., Taylor, K.A., Pacini, A.F. and Estaban, J.A. (2008) Hearing pathways and directional sensitivity of the beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas. Journal of Experimental Biology and Ecology. 362, 108-116.

 

· Nachtigall, P.E., Reichmuth, C. and Schusterman, R.J. (2008) Healthy stranded animals and laboratory research . Marine Mammal Science  23, 746.

 

· Nachtigall, P.E. and Supin, A. Ya., (2008) A false killer whale adjusts its hearing when it echolocates. Journal of Experimental Biology, 211, 1714-1718

 

· Nachtigall, P. E., Mooney T.A., Taylor K.A., Miller L.A., Rasmussen M. H., Akamatsu T., Teilman J., Linnenschmidt M., and Vikingsson G. A.  (2008) Shipboard measurements of the hearing of the white-beaked dolphin, Lagenorhynchus albirostris. Journal of Experimental Biology 211, 642-647.  

 

· Supin, A.Ya., Nachtigall, P.E. and Breese, M. (2008) Hearing sensitivity during target presence and absence while a whale echolocates. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 123, 534-541

 

· Muller, M.W. Allen, J.S., Au, W.W.L. and P.E. Nachtigall, (2008) Time-frequency analysis and modeling of the backscatter of categorized dolphin echolocation clicks for target discrimination,  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2008, 124, 657-666  

 

· Southall, B.L.,Bowles,A.E.,Ellison,W.T., Finneran, J.J.,Gentry, R.L.,Greene C.R.Jr.,Kastak D.,Ketten, D.R.,Miller, J.H. ,Nachtigall , P.E.,Richardson, W.J.,  Thomas, J.A,.Tyack, P.L.  (2007) Marine Mammal Noise Exposure: Proposed Criteria based on Current Scientific Evidence. (Aquatic Mammals – Special Tutorial Publication) Aquatic Mammals 411-509

 

· Ibsen, S.D., Au, W.W.L. Nachtigall, P.E. (2007) Changes in signal parameters over time for an echolocating Atlantic bottlenose dolphin performing the same target discrimination task. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 122, 2446-2450

 

· Muller, M.W., Au, W.W.L., Nachtigall, P.E., Allen, J.S. and Breese, M. (2007) Phantom echo highlight amplitude and temporal difference resolutions of an echolocating  dolphin Tursiops truncatus.  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 122, 2255-2262

 

· Mooney, T.A., Au, W.W.L.,  Nachtigall, P.E. and  Trippel, E.A. (2007) Acoustic and stiffness properties of gillnets as they relate to small cetacean bycatch.  ICES Journal of Marine Science, 64, 1-9.

 

· André, M. and Nachtigall, P.E. (2007)  Electrophysiological measurements of hearing in marine mammals Aquatic Mammals, 33 (1), 1-6

 

· Nachtigall, P.E., Mooney, T.A., Taylor, K.A., and Yuen, M.L. (2007)  Hearing and Auditory Evoked Potential Methods  Applied to Odontocete Cetaceans. Aquatic Mammals, 33 (1), 6-13

 

· Taylor, K.A., Nachtigall, P.E., Mooney, T.A., Supin, A. Ya., and Yuen, M.L. (2007) A portable system for the evaluation of the auditory capabilities of marine mammals.  Aquatic Mammals 33.1, 93-99.

 

· Yuen, M.L., Nachtigall, P.E., Breese, M. and Vlachos, S. (2007) The perception of complex  tones by a false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens)   Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 121, 1768-1774

 

· Nachtigall, P.E., Supin A. Ya, Amundin, M.,  Röken, B., Møller, T.,  Mooney, T.A.,Taylor, K.A., & Yuen, M.E., (2007) Polar bear(Ursus maritimus) hearing measured with auditory evoked potentials. Journal of Experimental Biology, 210, 1116-1122

 

· Supin A.Ya, Nachtigall, P.E., and Breese, M.  (2007)  Evoked-potential recovery during double click stimulation in a whale: A possibility of biosonar automatic gain control.  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 121, (1) 618-625

 

· Nachtigall, P.E. Studying Sensory Systems in Dolphins and Whales  (2007) Proceedings of the Discussion Group on Reducing Cetacean Interactions with Pelagic Longline Gear of the Third International Fishers Forum, Yokohama Japan

 

· Supin A.Ya, Nachtigall, P.E., and Breese, M. . (2006) Source level to sensation level ratio of transmitted biosonar pulses in an echolocating false killer whale Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 120,(1) 518-526

 

· Mooney, T.A., Nachtigall, P.E., and Yuen, M.E., (2006) Rapid auditory evoked responses and high temporal resolution in a Risso’s dolphin, Grampus griseus.  Journal of Comparative Physiology-A 192, 373-380

 

· Yuen, M.E., Nachtigall, P.E., and Supin, A.Ya., and Breese, M. (2005)  Behavioral and auditory evoked potential audiograms of a false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 118 (4) 2688-2695

 

· Nachtigall, P.E., Yuen, M.E., Mooney, T.A., and Taylor, K.A. 2005 Hearing measurements from a stranded infant Risso’s dolphin (Grampus griseus). Journal of Experimental Biology, 208:4181-4188

 

· Supin, A. Ya., Nachtigall, P.E., Au, W.W.L, and Breese, M.  (2005)  Invariance of echo-responses to target strength and distance in an echolocating false killer whale: evoked potential study. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America,117(6), 3928-3935

 

· Nachtigall, P.E., Supin, A.Ya. Pawloski, J. L and Au, W.W.L. (2004)  Temporary threshold shifts after noise exposure in a bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) measured using evoked auditory potentials. Marine Mammal Science, 20(4), 673-687

 

· Nachtigall, P.E. (2004) Low Frequency Hearing in Odontocetes and Evoked Auditory Potentials Measuring Recovery from Temporary threshold shifts in the Bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus).  Polarforschung, 72, 75-76.

 

· Mooney, T.A., Nachtigall, P.E., and Au, W.W.L . (2004)  Target strengths of a nylon monofilament and an acoustically enhanced gillnet: Prediction of biosonar detection ranges.   Aquatic Mammals, 30 (2), 220-226.

 

· Supin, A. Ya., Nachtigall, P.E., Au. W.W.L. and Breese, M. (2004)  The interaction of outgoing echolocation pulses and echoes in the false killer whale’s auditory system: evoked potential study   Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 115(6) 3218-3225

 

· Nachtigall, P.E. and Supin, A. Ya. (2004) Measuring Hearing with Auditory Brainstem Responses. Active Sonar Workshop Proceedings, Las Palmas, Canary Islands: European Cetacean Society Special Publication Number 42, 48-52.

 

· Lammers, M.O., Au, W.W.L., Aubauer, R., and Nachtigall, P.E. (2004) A comparative  analysis of the pulsed emissions of free-ranging Hawaiian Spinner dolphins (stenella longirostris).  In: Thomas, J., Moss, C. and Vater, M.: Echolocation in bats and dolphins, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 414-419

 

· Philips, J., Au, W.W.L., Nachtigall, P.E., Pawloski, J.L., and Roitblat, H.L. (2004) Echolocation in the Risso’s dolphin, Grampus griseus, a preliminary report.  In: Thomas, J., Moss, C., and Vater, M.: Echolocation in bats and dolphins, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 43-50.

 

· Aubauer, R. Au ,W W. L., and Nachtigall P. E. (2004) Acoustic Simulation of Phantom Target Echoes in Dolphin Behavioral Experiments.  In: Thomas, J., Moss, C., and Vater, M.: Echolocation in bats and dolphins, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 514-518

   

· Nachtigall, P.E., Pawlowski, J. L., and Au W.W.L. (2003) Temporary threshold shifts and recovery following noise exposure in the Atlantic Bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 113(6) 3425-3429

 

· Madsen P.T., D.A. Carder, W.W.L. Au, B. Møhl, P.E. Nachtigall and S.H. Ridgway. (2003) Sound production in neonate sperm whales.  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 113 (6) 2988-2991

 

· Supin, A.Ya., Nachtigall, P.E., Pawloski, J.L., and Au, W.W.L. (2003) Evoked potential recording during echolocation in a false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens).  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 113(5), 2408-2411

 

· Philips, J.D., Nachtigall, P.E., Au, W.W.L., Pawloski, J.L and Roitblat, H.L. (2003).  Echolocation in the Risso’s dolphin, Grampus Griseus.   Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 113 (1), 605-617.

 

· Mœhl, B.,  P. T. Madsen, M. Wahlberg, W. W. L. Au, P. E. Nachtigall, & S. H. Ridgway.  (2003), Sound transmission in the spermaceti complex of a recently expired sperm whale calf.   Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. Acoustics Research Letters Online (4)1, 19-24.

 

· Nachtigall, P.E. (2002) Book Review: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Perrin, W.F., Wursig, B. & Thewissen, J.G.M.  Invited review: (2002) Aquatic Mammals, 28 (3), 324.

 

· Au, W.W.L., Lemonds, D.W., Vlachos, S. Nachtigall, P.E., and Roitblat, H.L. (2002)  Atlantic Bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Hearing thresholds for brief broadband signals. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 116(2), 151-157.

 

· Nachtigall, P.E.  Book Review: The Sensory Physiology of Aquatic Mammals (2002)  Supin, A. Ya, Popov, V.V. & Mass, A.M. Invited Review. Aquatic Mammals: 28(2): 218-219

 

· Nachtigall, P.E., (2002) Invited – Forward. Molecular and Cell Biology of Marine Mammals. Carl J. Pfeiffer (Ed),  Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida.

 

· Nachtigall, P.E., Au, W.W.L., Pawloski, J.L. & Andrews, K.  Measurements of the low frequency components of active and passive sounds produced by dolphins. (2000) Aquatic Mammals 26 (3), 167-175.

 

· Au, W.W.L., Mobley, J., Burgess, W.C., Lammers, M. and Nachtigall, P.E. (2000) Seasonal and diurnal trends of chorusing humpback whales wintering in waters off West Maui.  Marine Mammal Science, 16(3), 530-544.

 

· Aubauer, R., Au, W.W.L., Nachtigall, P.E., Pawloski, D.A. and DeLong, C.M. (2000)  Classification of electronically generated phantom targets by an Atlantic bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 107, 2750-2754.

 

· Nachtigall, P.E.,  Au, W.W.L., Roitblat, H.L. and Pawloski, J.L. (2000) Dolphin Biosonar: A model for Biomimetic Sonars.  In: Proceedings of the first International Symposium on Aqua Bio-Mechanisms, pp 115-121.

 

· Nachtigall, P.E., Lemonds, D.W., and Roitblat, H. L. (2000) Psychoacoustic Studies of Whale and Dolphin Hearing.  In: Au, W.W.L, Popper, A.N. and Fay R.J. (eds) Hearing By Whales, Springer-Verlag, New York pp. 330-364.

 

· Atkinson, S., Combelles, C., Vincent, D., Nachtigall, P.E., Pawloski, J. and Breese, M.(1999) Monitoring of progesterone in captive female false killer whales, Pseudorca crassidens.  General and Comparative endocrinology, 115, 323-332.

 

· Møhl, B., Au, W.W.L., Pawloski, J.L. and Nachtigall, P.E. (1999) Dolphin hearing: Relative sensitivity as a function of point of application of a contact sound source in the jaw and head region. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 105, 3421-3424

 

· Roitblat, H. L., Nachtigall, P. E., Au, W. W. L., Shizumura, R., & Moons,G. (1999).  Classifying buried targets by mimicking dolphin echolocation.In Y.-C. Teng, E.-C. Shang, Y.-H. Pao, M. H. Schultz, and A.D. Pierce(Eds.): Theoretical and computational acoustics '97.  (pp. 553-559).Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.

 

· Nachtigall, P.E. Au, W.W.L, Pawloski J.L. and Andrews, K.A. (1998) Measurements of the low frequency components of active and passive sounds produced by dolphins.  Southwest Fisheries Science Center Administrative Report LJ-00-07C. 20 pages.

 

· Au, W.W.L., Nachtigall, P.E., and Pawloski, J.L. (1997)  Acoustic effects of the ATOC signal (75 Hz, 195 dB) on dolphins and whales. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 101, 2973-2977. 

 

· Au, W.W.L, and Nachtigall, P.E. (1997)  Acoustics of echolocating dolphins and small whales.  Marine and Freshwater Physiology and Behavior, 29, 127-162

 

· Harley, H., Roitblat, H.L. and Nachtigall, P.E.  (1996) Object representation in the bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): Integration of visual and echoic information.   Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes,  22 (2), 164-174.

 

· Nachtigall, P.E.,  Au, W.W.L. and Pawloski, J.L. and Moore, P.W.B.  (1996) Risso's dolphin hearing thresholds in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii.  In: Sensory Systems of Aquatic Mammals. R. A. Kastelein, J.A. Thomas, and P.E. Nachtigall (Eds) 49-55.

 

· Helweg, D.A.,  Au, W.W.L.,  Roitblat, H.L., and Nachtigall, P.E.  (1996) Acoustic basis for recognition of aspect-dependent three-dimensional targets by an echolocating bottlenose dolphin. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 99 (1) 2409-2420.

 

· Helweg, D.A., Roitblat, H.L., Nachtigall, P. E.  & . Hautus, M.J. (1996) Recognition of aspect‑dependent three‑dimensional objects by an echolocating Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 22, 19‑31.

                                     

· Au, W.W.L., Anderson, L,. Rasmussen, A., Roitblat, H.L. and Nachtigall, P.E. (1995) Neural network modeling of a dolphin's sonar discrimination capabilities. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America,   98, 43-50.

 

· Dolphin, W.F., Au, W.W.L., Nachtigall, P.E. and Pawloski, J.L. (1995) Modulation rate transfer functions to low frequency carriers by three species of cetaceans, Journal of Comparative Physiology A,  , 177, 235-245.

 

· Au, W.W.L., Pawloski, J.L, Nachtigall, P.E., Blonz, M.E. and Gisiner, R.C.  (1995) Echolocation signals and transmission beam pattern of a false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens).  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America,  , 98, 51-59.

 

· Roitblat, H.L., Au, W.W.L., Nachtigall, P.E., Shizamura, R., and Moons J.  (1995) Sonar recognition of targets embedded in sediment. Neural Networks,  8 (8), 1263-1273

 

· Au, W.W.L. and Nachtigall P.E.  Artificial neural network modeling of dolphin echolocation.  In: Sensory Systems of Aquatic Mammals.  R. A. Kastelein, J.A. Thomas, and P.E. Nachtigall (Eds), 1995, 183-201.

 

· Helweg, D.A., Roitblat H.L., Nachtigall, P.E., Au, W.W.L., and Irwin, R.J. Discrimination of echoes from aspect dependent targets by a bottlenose dolphin and human listeners. In: Sensory Systems of Aquatic Mammals. R. A. Kastelein, J.A. Thomas, and P.E. Nachtigall (Eds), 1995 , 129-136.

 

· Nachtigall, P.E., Au, W.W.L., Pawloski, J.L., and Roitblat, H.L. (1994) Animal echolocation and signal processing.  Oceans 94: Proceedings of the IEEE., I, 259-263.

 

· Au, W.W.L. and  Nachtigall, P.E. (1994) Dolphin Acoustics and Echolocation.  Acoustical Bulletin (August-September Issue).

 

· Nachtigall, P. E. (1993). Book Review:  Sensory abilities of cetaceans:  Laboratory and field evidence, J. Thomas and R. Kastelein (Eds), Marine Mammal Science, 9,(1):112-114.

 

· Helweg, D.A., Roitblat, H.L., and Nachtigall P.E.(1993) Using a Neural Network to Model Dolphin Echolocation. In: Artificial Neural Networks and Expert Systems.  N. Kasabov (Ed) IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, California, 247-251.

 

· Dawson, W. W., P. E. Nachtigall, J. C. Dawson, G. M. Hope, and J. P. Schroeder, (1992) Cetacean lens-zones of discontinuity-indices of health and development, Marine Mammal Science, 8(4): 379-386.

 

· Dawson, W. W., J. P. Schroeder, J. C. Dawson, and P. E. Nachtigall, (1992) Cyclic ocular hypertension in cetaceans, Marine Mammal Science 8(2): 135-142.

 

· Moore, P. W., H. L. Roitblat, R. H. Penner, and Nachtigall, P.E, (1991) Recognizing successive dolphin echoes with an integrator gateway network.  Neural Networks, 4, 701-709.

 

· Roitblat, H. L., P. W. B. Moore, P. E. Nachtigall, and R. H. Penner.(1991)  Biomimetic sonar processing:  From dolphin echolocation of artificial neural networks.  From Animals to Animats: Proceedings of the first International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior.  J. A. Meyer and S. Wilson (Eds)  The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

 

· Roitblat, Herbert L., Patrick W. B. Moore, Paul E. Nachtigall, and Ralph H. Penner, (1991) Natural dolphin echo recognition using an integrator gateway network.  In:  Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 3.  Richard P. Lippmann, John E. Moody, and David S. Touretzky (Eds) pp. 273-281, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, California.

 

· Roitblat, H. L., R. A. Penner, and P. E. Nachtigall, (1990) Attention and decision making in echolocation matching-to-sample by a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus):  The microstructure of decision making.  In:  Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans:  Laboratory and Field Evidence.  J. A. Thomas and R. A. Kastelein (Eds), 1991 (pp. 665-667), Plenum Press, London, England.

 

· Nachtigall, P.E., (1990) Book Review:  Biology of the genus cephalorhynchus, Aquatic Mammals, 16(3) 92-95.

 

· Friedl, W. A., P. E. Nachtigall, P. W. Moore, N. K. W. Chun, J. E. Haun, R. W. Hall, and J. L. Richards, (1990) Taste reception in the Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus gilli) and the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  In:  Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans:  Laboratory and Field Evidence.  J. A. Thomas and R. A. Kastelein (Eds), 1990, Plenum Press, New York.

 

· Nachtigall, P. E., J. L. Pawloski, J. P. Schroeder, and S. Sinclair, (1990) Successful maintenance and research with a formerly stranded Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), Aquatic Mammals, 16(1) 8-13.

 

· Roitblat, H.L., R. H. Penner, and P. E. Nachtigall, (1990) Matching-to-sample by an echolocating dolphin, Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Animal Behavior Processes 16(1) 85-95.

 

· Thomas, J. A., P. W. B. Moore, P. E. Nachtigall, and W. G. Gilmartin, (1990) A new sound from a stranded pygmy sperm whale, Aquatic Mammals, 16(1) 28-30.

 

· Roitblat, H. L., P. W. B. Moore, P. E. Nachtigall, R. H. Penner, and W. W. L. Au, (1989) Dolphin echolocation:  Identification of returning echoes using a counter propagation network, Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, Vol 1, pp. 295-300, IEEE, Piscataway, New Jersey.

 

· Roitblat, H. L., P. W. B. Moore, P. E. Nachtigall, R. H. Penner, and W. W. L. Au, (1989), Natural echolocation with an artificial neural network, International Journal of Neural Networks, 1(4): 239-248.

 

· Nachtigall, P. E., Vision, Audition, and Chemoreception in Dolphins and other Marine Mammals.  In:  Dolphin Cognition and Behavior:  A Comparative approach.  R. J. Schusterman, F. G. Wood, and J. Thomas (Eds.) 1986, Erlbaum, New York.

 

· Haun, J. E. and P. E. Nachtigall, Artificial Intelligence and Bionics Workshop Report, Technical Report 1003, Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, California, November 1985.

 

· Nachtigall, P. E. and R. Hall, Taste Reception in the Bottlenosed Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). (1985) Acta Zoologica Fennica , 172:147‑148.

 

· Moore, P. W. B., R. W. Hall, W. A. Friedl, and P. E. Nachtigall (1984) The critical interval in dolphin echolocation:  What is it,?  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 76, 314‑317.

 

· Nachtigall, P. E. (1980) Odontocete Echolocation Performance on Object size, Shape, and Material.  In:  Animal Sonar Systems (R. G. Busnel and J. F. Fish Eds.) Plenum Press: New York.

 

· Nachtigall, P. E., A. E. Murchison, and W. W. L. Au, (1980) Discrimination by an Echolocating Blindfolded Bottlenosed Dolphin.  In:  Animal Sonar Systems (R. G. Busnel and J. F. Fish Eds.) Plenum Press: New York. 

 

· Nachtigall, P. E. (1980) Bibliography of Echolocation Papers on Aquatic Mammals published between 1966 and 1978.  In:  Animal Sonar Systems (R. G. Busnel and J. F. Fish Eds.)  Plenum Press: New York.

 

· Nachtigall, P. E. (1980) Echolocation Sameness‑Difference Discrimination by the Atlantic Bottlenosed Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 68, S98.

 

· Nachtigall, P. E., A. E. Murchison, and W. Au, (1978) Discrimination of solid  cylinders and cubes by a blindfolded echolocating bottlenose dolphin  (Tursiops truncatus).  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 64,    S87.

 

· Nachtigall, P. E., Food‑Intake and Food‑Rewarded Instrumental Performance in  Dolphins as a Function of Feeding Schedule.  Doctoral Dissertation, University of Hawaii, May 1976.

 

· Colgrove, G. S., T. R. Sawa, J. T. Brown, R. F. McDowell, and P. E. Nachtigall, (1975) Necrotic stomatitis in a dolphin.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 11, 460‑464.

 

· Beach III, F. A., R. L. Pepper, J. V. Simmons, Jr., P. A. Siri, and P. E. Nachtigall, (1974) Spatial habit reversal in two species of marine mammals.  Psychological Record, 24, 385‑391.

 

· Pepper, R. L., F. A. Beach III, J. V. Simmons, Jr., and P. E. Nachtigall, (1972) Visual acuity of the bottlenose dolphin in air.  Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference on Biological Sonar and Diving Mammals.  Stanford Research Institute Press, 1972, 9, 1‑7.

 

· Nachtigall, P. E. (1971) Spatial discrimination and reversal based on differential magnitude of reward in the dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).   Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Conference on Biological Sonar and Diving  Mammals.  Stanford Research Institute Press, 8, 67‑71.

 

· Nachtigall, P. E. (1969) Visual size discrimination in the East Asian Clawless Otter (Amblyonyx cineria) in air and under water.  Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Conference on Biological Sonar and Diving Mammals, Stanford Research Institute Press, 6, 83‑86.